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Another method of enforcing law is the loss of corresponding legal rights and privileges. They can be economic, or breaking diplomatic relations, freezing assets. A state can not be compelled gedwongen to use the ICJ international court of justice for the resolution of a legal dispute. If a matter is refered to it, it's award is binding and must be carried out.

It's founded on the nature of man as a reasonable being. Rules of law are derived from the dictates of nature as a matter of human reason. Study Smart With Chrise zal later vandaag 15 minuten offline zijn omdat we onderhoud plegen. Maak je geen zorgen, al je werk is goed opgeslagen. Samenvatting Textbook on international law. Wetenschappelijk bewezen.

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Bekijk het Study Smart Pakket. Dit is de samenvatting van het boek "Textbook on international law". Het ISBN van dit boek is of Deze samenvatting is geschreven door studenten die effectief studeren met de studietool van Study Smart With Chris. Samenvatting - Textbook on international law 1 The nature of international law and the international system What is meant by positivism and naturalism and to what extent have these philosophies influenced the development and contents of international law?

What is there to question when looking at international law? What is the main responsibility of the International Criminal Court? Prosecuting individuals for violation of fundamental international human rights.

Prof. Martin Dixon, Dr. Martin Dixon - ISBN: 9780199574452

What is national law primarily concerned with? The legal rights and duties of legal persons within a body politic - the state or simular entity.

Where is national 'law' commonly derived from? A legal superior, recognised as competent by the society to whom the law is addressed e. What is international law primarily concerned with? An international legal system must facilitate the interaction of the legally equal states rather than control or compel them in imitation of the control and compulsion that national law exerts over its subjects.

What kind of system does international law comprise? A system of rules and principles that govern the international relations between sovereign states and other institutional subjects of international law such as the United Nations and the African Union. International law is a primary tool for What is the most cogent meest overtuigend argument for the existence of international law? What is there to question about international law? States are subjects of international law.

Holdings: Textbook on international law

Again, the absence of a central organisation responsible for law creation may be a disadvantage when there is a need to develop a comprehensive and general body of rules, as with the law concerning protection of the international environment. The customary law-making process may be too slow when new rules are needed quickly or circumstances change rapidly, as in the area of international communications. Lastly, the absence of a compulsory court structure means that some disputes may persist for decades to the detriment of all concerned, as with Argentina and the UK over the Falkland Islands, and India and Pakistan over Jammu-Kashmir.

It sometimes seems that many of the disputes between states occur precisely because the rule of international law governing their conduct is not clear, rather than that one state is deliberately behaving illegally. For example, disputes generated by trans-boundary pollution e. On the other hand, if lack of certainty does mean less entrenched disputes, this may be advantageous in a system of law that does not have many formal institutions.

Textbook on International Law, 7E

Sometimes this is recognised by the legal system itself, as with the law of self-defence and necessity in international law, but usually it is not. International law is no different from national law in this respect and it is unrealis- tic to expect perfect obedience.

However, it may be that because international law lacks formal enforcement machinery, the temptation and opportunity to violate the law is greater than in other systems. Such was the case, for example, with the invasions of Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon and the Israeli violation of Argentinian sovereignty in seizing the war criminal, Adolf Eichmann, in Yet, this is not to say that international law is irrelevant in times of crises. So, while international law may not prevent a state from engaging in illegal conduct when its vital interests or vital community goals?

One view of international law is that its first task should be to ensure that the international community runs on orderly and predictable lines. In this it largely succeeds. In national legal systems there are rules prohibiting murder and other forms of violence, and in international law there is a general prohibition against the use of force.

Textbook on International Law

For some critics the validity of the legal system as a whole stands or falls by the degree to which these vital rules are obeyed or enforced. Dealing with the consequences of a violation of these rules is often too late, as the peoples of Kuwait, Bosnia, Iraq and The Sudan will bear witness. This is a valid criticism of international law and needs to be recognised as such. However, the inability of international law to prevent or control outbreaks of vio- lence is not as destructive as it would be if it occurred in national legal systems.

The factual context of international law is quite different from the operational field of national law and aggression between states is something quite different from acts of violence between individuals. The violence used by an individual in a society can be overwhelmed easily by the forces at the disposal of the central authority with very little chance of major disruption to the state itself. In international society, an act of aggression by one state against another state has far greater consequences and the costs of controlling it forcefully are exceptionally high.

It is quite possible, for example, for the forces available to the aggressor to outweigh the forces available to the enforcers of the law and, even if they do not, the loss of life and consequential economic damage caused by inter-state violence is quantitatively and qualitatively different from anything likely to occur within national boundaries. This is perhaps the reason why more determined action was not taken in the territory of the former Yugoslavia in the early stages of the dispute.

Of course, this is not an argument advocating that international law should have no rules prohibiting acts of violence. Rather, it is a suggestion that because of the field of operation of international law, rules of physical enforcement are not as desirable or practical as they are in other legal systems. This is a fact of international life, albeit not a palatable one.

What is the juridical origin or source of international law? Why is it law?

These are questions that have vexed jurists for many years and a number of theories have been developed. These are considered below. This theory has had a profound and, perhaps, unwarranted impact on the search for the juridical origin of international law. Customary law, for example, develops through state practice and treaty law develops through consent. As a general description of what law is, this theory has now been largely discredited. The picture of law as a series of commands issued by a sovereign and backed by threats does not even describe national law accurately, let alone inter- national law.

Moreover, Austinian theory may be dismissed in so far as it suggests that international law is the same sort of animal as national law. The sovereignty theory misinterprets the function of international law because its primary purpose is not to coerce or command states, but to enable them to interact freely by laying down orderly, predictable and binding principles. In its pure form, this consensual or positivist theory stipulates that no international law can be created without the consent of the state which is to be bound.

International law is said to flow from the will of the state. It is formed from the real- ities of international life rather than its desirabilities. It is created by what actually goes on consent , rather than according to some higher moral principles. In this regard, the consensual theory has certain attractions, for it appears to reflect accurately what goes on in international society.

The rule that states are bound by their treaty obligations pacta sunt servanda — treaties must be observed seems to be based on consent because, as we shall see, treaties are generally binding on a state only if it deliberately and positively accepts the terms. Similarly, it is not inconceivable to regard customary law as being con- sensual, for consistent state practice may be tantamount to agreeing to be bound by the rule that then develops. However, there are certain difficulties with the consensual approach to inter- national law, both theoretical and practical.

First, as a matter of legal theory, it is not at all clear why states can be bound only by self-imposed obligations. There seems to be no necessary reason why this should be so, especially since many rules are not really referable to consent.